For other permission, please contact. Lauer is right to point out that »we look not inside other heads in order to understand other people, but inside ourselves« »wir gucken nicht in andere Köpfe hinein, um andere zu verstehen, sondern in uns«, 153. Holmes was neither the most successful of lawyers nor the most lawyerly of judges. This approach to the use of scripture in Christian ethics is displayed in historical discussions of two Christian practices through which scripture is read ecclesiologically: the Eastern Orthodox liturgical celebration of the Eucharist and the Anabaptist practice of binding and loosing or the rule of Christ. For the past two thousand years, the philosophy of law has been dominated by two rival doctrines.
Robert Jackson did not attend law school and Benjamin Cardozo left before getting a degree. At this point, from the perspective of current methodological reflection in the study of literature, imitation presents itself as a process of analogy formation that may perhaps be necessary but cannot be straightforwardly described as an unproblematic mode of understanding see Spoerhase 2007. Neu ist ihre Begr ü ndung«, 158. We know neither the mechanism that brings the neurons to fire nor the mechanism that gives rise to the pleasure of imitating inside us. This link is created by mimesis in the widest sense of the word. For all their brevity, these general methodological remarks should be clear as far as points a and b are concerned; further explanation may however be felt necessary in the case of c and d.
Citing these examples, Posner makes a plea for a law that frees itself from excessive insularity and takes all knowledge, practical and theoretical, as grist for its mill. Zwei hermeneutische Phänomene, die als Minimalfunktionen philologischer Autorschaft gelten können, sind das Ergebnis der anschließenden Untersuchung: Der Rückgriff auf den Autor erweist sich immer dort als notwendig, wo Historizität und Normkonformität literarischer Artefakte im hermeneutischen Prozess eine Rolle spielen. Series Title: , Series Studia. Some Thoughts on the Possibility of Transferring Knowledge. Taking American literature's universalism as an organising force that must be explained rather than simply exposed, she contends that Emerson, Hawthorne, and Stowe's often noted investigations of experience are actually based in a belief that experience is an abstract category governed by typicality, not the property of the individual subject. An analogous statement could be made about the relationship between empathy or imitation on the one hand and mirror neurons on the other.
As Lauer emphasizes when referring to the ability of newborn children to imitate 146 , imitation is, »in humans at least, always intertwined with culture and is itself the foundation of culture« »mindestens beim Menschen immer auch kulturell durchdrungen und selbst die Grundlage von Kultur«, 147. Nachdem die methodischen Überlegungen im vorangegangenen Kapitel ausführlich beleuchtet wurden, werden nachfolgend die zentralen Ergebnisse der empirischen Analyse dargestellt. It is in mirror neurons that Lauer finds the »reason why we enjoy imitation« »Grund des Wohlgefallens an der Nachahmung «, 158. Traditional concepts of literary and cultural studies such as empathy, identification, imitation, mimesis, mimicry, simulation, sympathy, and emotional contagion have been reformulated on the basis of the discovery of mirror neurons. Quite the reverse, in fact - they are actively encour aged wherever appropriate to the balance of the volume in question. Metaphorischer formuliert: Literatur ist Nahrung für unseren Nachahmungsinstinkt«, 152. Category: Philosophy Author : G.
In this case, the legitimacy of a knowledge transfer would depend on whether or not it leads to innovation in the receiving discipline. Frank Kelleter, The polemic animal or, How I learned to stop worrying and love partisan politics. Andreas Hüttemann, Kann die evolutionäre Psychologie kulturelle Phänomene erklären?. We can say only that there is a correlation between the two. They include philosophers, historians, political theorists, and literary critics, and they teach in colleges and universities in Britain, in Europe, and in North America. Rejecting these doctrines as too metaphysical in the first instance and too nihilistic in the second, Richard Posner argues for a pragmatic jurisprudence, one that eschews formalism in favor of the factual and the empirical. Theological topics include Origen, Calvin, and Dutch Reformed thinkers, American Baptists, Mercersburg Theology, Scottish theology, liberation theology, assurance, the atonement, ecclesiology, ecumenism, art and theology, Christian ethics, worship and spirituality.
It will always be necessary to determine on a case-by-case basis whether, and in what form, knowledge transfers are sensible by considering the constantly changing state of research, the problem at stake, and the category or categories involved. Lauer summarizes his hypothesis with precision at the end of his essay as follows: »The hypothesis that the human being is an animal poeta because it imitates may not as such be new. Als Beitrag zur weiteren Systematisierung und Ausdifferenzierung der literaturwissenschaftlichen Hermeneutik fragt die Studie nach der Rolle des Autors und der Autorintentionen für die Interpretation literarischer Texte, um zu zeigen, dass hinter der Problematisierung des Autors in vielen Fällen die Problematisierung der Interpretation von Texten überhaupt steht. Today these Insiders all feature in the syllabi of most history of philosophy courses taught in western universities, and the papers in this collection, contrasting the stories of their receptions with those of the Outsiders, give an insight into the history of philosophy which is generally overlooked. This was the age of Hume and Berkeley and Reid, of Hutcheson and Kames and Smith, of Ferguson and Burke and Wollstonecraft. In making his arguments, he discusses notable figures in jurisprudence from Antigonc to Ronald Dworkin as well as recent movements ranging from law and economics to civic republicanism, and feminism to libertarianism.
Lauer writes that »literature imitates human actions, as the tradition of poetics says together with Aristotle, and takes pleasure in doing so« »Literatur ahmt Handlungen von Menschen nach, sagt die poetologische Tradition mit Aristoteles, und das mit Freude«, 153. Einführend erfolgen jedoch die Analyse der Stichprobenzusammen-setzung und der Datenstruktur. The pragmatism that Posner espouses implies looking at problems concretely, experimentally, without illusions, with an emphasis on keeping diverse paths of inquiry open, and, above all, with the insistence that social thought and action be evaluated as instruments to desired human goals rather than as ends in themselves. This Oxford Handbook is the first book ever to provide comprehensive coverage of the full range of philosophical writing in Britain in the eighteenth century. Papers address general issues, however, rather than local ones; parochial topics are avoided.
Beskrivelse The focus of this study is provided by the concept of authorship and its significance for the interpretation of literary texts. All are subjected to Posner's stringent analysis in a fresh and candid examination of some of the deepest problems presented by the enterprise of law. It should be made clear that these objections are not to be interpreted as a fundamental rejection of the project of providing the study of literature and culture with a grounding in the human sciences as described by, for example, Eibl 2007. Our discussion of knowledge transfers using the current discussion of mirror neurons in cultural studies as an example can be summarized as follows: at the present moment in time, this particular knowledge transfer does not offer insights that could be taken further in the study of literature. This, though, does not in itself tell us anything about the specific role of literature. This new history of Scottish philosophy will include two volumes that focus on the Scottish Enlightenment. Author: Carlos Spoerhase Publisher: Berlin : De Gruyter, 2007.
Our first objection can be reformulated as follows with reference to this summary: the existence of mirror neurons on its own is not enough to explain or account for why humans find pleasure in imitation. Category: Philosophy Author : James A. This is above all because the current state of knowledge in the source discipline has not yet reached a stage advanced enough to make the knowledge transfer appear legitimate. Mimesis is and has been able to play such an important role in the arts because humans are »very good imitators« »sehr gute Nachahmer «, 140. Our findings can now, we believe, be generalized so as to set out some fundamental points about the transfer of knowledge involved. Laws, he argues, are not abstract, sacred entities, but socially determined goads for shaping behavior to conform with society's values.