Together, these sections offer a complete reading of all the histories through the citizen theme. This is the way to kindle, not to quench. In the final act, where both Antipholi come together with their father Egeon, we discover what we already knew without fully recognizing: Antipholus of Ephesus was not always an Ephesian. The oath of citizenship was often sworn the same day as the oath of the company, in the Guildhall. The central character in Cymbeline is redeemed through his soldiership, which points the way to a form of subjectivity—or citizenship— that would not be realized in England until the Civil War and Interregnum.
But The Comedy of Errors remains opaque on the sublation of subject or citizen status by religious identity at the end. To imagine yourself as a stranger is to imagine yourself unable to speak the common tongue. At Actium, he ran after Cleopatra, violating experience, manhood, and honor 3. As in Julius Caesar, masculine murder and its rituals displace wifehood, childbirth, and their claims. The parish was the basic unit of local government in many parts of England, and particularly in London.
Their fickleness and bodily openness renders the herd of commoners feminine as well as bestial. Howard has pointed out the virtual absence of citizens and especially artisans as characters in Measure for Measure. Wherever the locations of the earliest performances of both plays might have been, their language conveyed an urban sensibility that was intelligible to high and low. But he seems to have consorted with citizens and strangers alike, depending on the occasion. He shows how the far-reaching transformations in social hierarchy which simultaneously began to take place are crucial to an understanding of the Comedies, in which confusion of identity, disguise and cross-dressing are central. Falstaff, that thorough scion of Merry England, is nevertheless associated with the strange and exotic in a number of other places, too.
The play, no less than its title character, is obsessed with the language of birthright and legitimacy, if only to undermine it. They are also compared to the pageant-wagons that figured in civic celebrations like those of the Lord Mayor. It is the absence of the leather apron, a traditional sign of craft identity and occasionally of its resistance to authority, that is rebellious here. The ignoble skirmish between a master and his apprentice resurfaces yet again at the end of the play to bedevil both Lancaster and York. A royal merchant, he has upheld the merciful exchange of social courtesy and economic obligation between elites and subalterns in his community. Sent to the country in arms once more, this time to gather his troops there, Falstaff imposes his city methods of recruiting on Gloucestershire and its village types.
In other words, comedy is about identity formation or subjectivation; romantic complications are the medium though which different modes of subjectivation are worked through on stage. When we see the triumvirate similarly proscribing enemies by their names immediately afterward 4. There is Ireland and Scotland in the buttocks and the hand. Idle journeymen joined with apprentices in riot and social protest during the late sixteenth century. It is animal food that Falstaff embodies, and it is the sheer detail of his identification with it, the different names for it and its by-products, and the geography of its production that fascinate. A series of metaphors for change and violence drawn from the trades begins with this image of reversal and making anew.
In both Q and F, Falstaff imaginatively prowls through the city and its corporeal, indeed olfactory, topography as he woos Mrs. Star Chamber heard many cases of riot and London officials turned to it to police criminal and seditious public disturbances throughout the period when civic measures failed. But she stakes her claim to elite citizenship and its philosophical implications by creating a battlefield scar, not solely through birthright, and certainly not by giving birth in turn. Evidently a duel since they met in the fields beyond the inn, this encounter suggests yet another absurd or unsuitable single combat. Hear you the news abroad? Suffolk, Cardinal Winchester, and even Warwick seem little better than quartermasters to the Crown at times. Editors have struggled to justify the past tense, but the explanation may be simple. His sayings are civil and uncivil at once.
Unlike strangers, nobles are not excluded from economic subjectivation. They shall stand for seed: they had gone down too, but that a wise burgher put in for them. Aaron gleefully plays upon his difference once it becomes undeniable, 128 Citizen Shakespeare even as he seeks to implicate the doltish brothers further in his fate: He is your brother, lords, sensibly fed Of that self blood that first gave life to you, And from that womb where you imprisoned were He is enfranchised and come to light. Rappaport, Worlds Within Worlds, p. Citizen S hakespeare Early Modern Cultural Studies Ivo Kamps, Series Editor Published by Palgrave Macmillan Idols of the Marketplace: Idolatry and Commodity Fetishism in English Literature, 1580—1680 by David Hawkes Shakespeare among the Animals: Nature and Society in the Drama of Early Modern England by Bruce Boehrer Maps and Memory in Early Modern England: A Sense of Place by Rhonda Lemke Sanford Debating Gender in Early Modern England, 1500—1700 edited by Cristina Malcolmson and Mihoko Suzuki Manhood and the Duel: Masculinity in Early Modern Drama and Culture by Jennifer A. The resolution of the action leaves these questions open.
In later times, as Livy records, Rome secured its strength by conquering Italian towns and partly extending its privileges to their inhabitants. These were the Dutch and French churches mentioned in the reports of the Dutch C o m e dy : C i v i l S ay i n g s 59 Church Libel. The contrast with the city comedy of Marston, Dekker, and others is marked. None of the books mentioned above discusses strangers in the city. Furthermore, citizens and citizen-types do appear in the histories, however circumscribed or caricatured their roles seem in comparison with the suffering creations of the Henslowe authors. I promise you, I scarcely know myself. In these jests, the civic sublime is made low by imaginary juxtaposition with the malleable, grotesque body.