High-pressure processing and ultrasonic treatment can disinfect the wet feedstock before drying. Chapter 2 addresses the need and influence of the reference method on Journal Journal of Texture Studies — Wiley Published: Aug 1, 2008. New techniques with additional capabilities have been developed over the years to provide wheat researchers with information that could not be acquired by the use of conventional methods. Mathematical analysis of the measurement system was proposed and verified for reliability and accuracy. The application of modern non-destructive testing methods on grain quality testing could reduce costs and improve detection accuracy, furthermore, make it combined with modern computer technology and data processing, which would play an important role in agriculture.
The broad-based coverage of topics addresses the most dominant sensor technologies keeping in mind the research initiatives advancing these technologies not only in food but also in the pharmaceutical sectors. Readers learn how the competencies of productknowledge, process understanding, instrumentation, principles ofsensing, process control, and analytical methodology are requiredto turn an application into a successful venture. Sensory evaluation is the primary method of acquiring valid quality information; however, for practical reasons instrumental methods are frequently used, but are also commonly misused. Milk and dairy products 4. Basic Principals of Raman Spectroscopy 6. For bulk density determination, an analytical expression was obtained from a representation of the dielectric properties in the complex plane.
It was observed that when the pH value switches from acidic to basic pH10 to pH6 the capacitance decreased from 290nF to 9nF. This article reviews the most recent researches about the use of nondestructive air-coupled ultrasound in food industries. The broad-based coverage of topics addresses the most dominant sensor technologies keeping in mind the research initiatives advancing these technologies not only in food but also in the pharmaceutical sectors. Repeatability was found excellent for all methods despite degradation and incomplete drying which should negatively affect accuracy. It could be shown that the water content of dried dairy products can be determined using the Karl Fischer titration independently of the level of crystallisation water. Coverage includes: ultrasound, near infrared spectroscopy, mid-infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, hyperspectral imaging systems, magnetic resonance imaging, electronic nose, z-nose, biosensors, microwave absorption, and nanoparticles and colloids as sensors. Previous work in this field has shown that, while it is a convenient method, standard MagLev i.
Techniques Based on the Measurement of Electrical Permittivity. This chapter describes the various types of instrumental measurements that are relevant to appearance, texture and flavour, and then outlines how relevant data can be extracted and correlated with sensory data, using different types of statistical procedures. In particular, a new paradigm on machine learning techniques has emerged posing the task of recognizing visual patterns as a search problem based on training data and a hypothesis space composed by visual features and suitable classifiers. Future and Conclusion Chapter 7 7. Manipulating the distance of separation between the magnets or the lengths of the magnets along the axis of measurement enables the sensitivity to be tuned. With over 15 years of research and teaching experience in biological and food engineering, Dr. And there is increased awareness of quality attributes of dehydrated foods such as color, texture, flavor, and nutrient content.
Nevertheless, on-going discussions on how effective the methods are capable to principally determine the water content lead to modifications of the official approach. Research limitations: The conclusions reached are still tentative, since it is a pioneering study with an empirical application reduced to only five companies. Considerable research efforts in computer vision applied to food quality evaluation have been developed in the last years; however, they have been concentrated on using or developing tailored methods based on visual features that are able to solve a specific task. Readers learn how the competencies of product knowledge, process understanding, instrumentation, principles of sensing, process control, and analytical methodology are required to turn an application into success. It discusses how the success of the sensors requires an understanding of the total environment they are to be used in, including staff, equipment design and placement, and management. The microwave oven technique is a reliable rapid alternative to classical air-drying in an oven for the determination of the total solids content in high moisture content dairy products. Christoph Reh, PhD , is a research scientist at Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland working on scientific projects for innovative beverage concepts.
Research scientists in universities and industryconsultants will find the experimental and testing protocols to bepractical tools. This paper presents methods that use Magnetic Levitation MagLev to measure very small differences in density of solid diamagnetic objects suspended in a paramagnetic medium. To date, customary ultrasound procedure uses a coupling medium between the transducer and the test sample to overcome the high attenuation due to the large acoustic impedance mismatch between air and the material. As for all total solids determinations, a representative sampling is required and sometimes the sample needs to be homogenized. It is also capable of performing nondestructive measurements on moving sealed metal cans containing food, and is able to detect foreign bodies with the top removed, as encountered before sealing. This allows use of this technique as a rapid near-line technique, performed by operational staff, for release of intermediate or final product. The results and measurement techniques developed from this study could be used as a simple nondestructive test for indication of banana ripeness and the changes in carbohydrate content during ripening, and it is expected that similar techniques could be beneficial for further applications with other kinds of crops.
In the paper, five test methods of modern electronic information technology, which were near-infrared spectroscopy, electronic nose, machine vision, magnetic resonance and acoustic vibrations, were described, the research progress of near-infrared spectroscopy, electronic nose technology and machine vision technology in grain quality nondestructive testing was reviewed with focuses. Table of Contents Preface List of Contributors Chapter 1 1. The existing reference method for moisture determination in dried milk is therefore not reasonably applicable on dairy products with high crystalline lactose content. In this article, we review several potential pretreatment technologies and analytical tools developed in recent years, which can be used to improve drying efficiency and rapid nondestructive detection. This review provides information on two emerging methods, i. A rapid dielectric-based method was used to non-destructively determine the moisture content and bulk density of peanut-hull pellets from free-space measurement of their dielectric properties at microwave frequencies. Future work will focuse on to reduce the microstructures size by thermal oxidation process until the structures break at junction and create gaps of nano sizes.
Air-coupled ultrasound has been used to perform measurements on liquids and starch-based materials, within containers similar to those used in the food industry. For moisture content determination, a permittivity-based function was used that permits moisture prediction independent of bulk density from measurement of the dielectric properties at microwave frequencies. The broad-based coverage of topics addresses the most dominant sensor technologies keeping in mind the research initiatives advancing these technologies not only in food but also in the pharmaceutical sectors. The objective of this research is to design, and fabricate polysilicon microstructures. Also in other research a rapid, non-contact and non-destructive air-coupled ultrasound technique has shown itself to be a feasible method for investigating the quality of milk-based beverages, and possibly other food products. Particle Sizing in the Food and Beverage Industry.
The discrepancy between mass loss on drying and water content becomes more pronounced when the product has high crystalline lactose content, such as whey powders or lactose itself. Prior to his appointment he was involved for more than 10 years in process analytics including non-destructive testing for factory application and physico-chemical characterization of foods. The air-coupled ultrasonic method is very effective for the testing of large areas. Governing equations for biosensor modeling 3. Coverage includes: ultrasound, near infrared spectroscopy, mid-infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, hyperspectral imaging systems, magnetic resonance imaging, electronic nose, z-nose, biosensors, microwave absorption, and nanoparticles and colloids as sensors.
Online Image Analysis of Particulate MaterialsChapter 9. Series Title: Responsibility: editors, Joseph Irudayaraj, Christoph Reh. The results are not only more accurate but also more precise than those obtained by the reference drying method. This capability will be useful in materials science, separations, and quality control of manufactured objects. The current study presents an application of Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy for detection and quantification of fraudulent addition of commonly employed adulterants spent coffee grounds, coffee husks, roasted corn and roasted barley to roasted and ground coffee. Coagulation with glucono-delta-lactone of skim milk mixed into this container could be monitored by a precision of a pH of 0. Edited by Joseph Irudayaraj and Christopher Reh.