Preface - The Changing Earth Science Network Projects 2009-2011. To better understand the various processes and interactions that govern the Earth system and to determine whether recent human-induced changes could ultimately de-stabilise its dynamics, both natural system variability and the consequences of human activities have to be observed and quantified. Salinity data are key for assessing the marine carbonate system, and new space-based salinity measurements will enable the development of novel space-based ocean acidification assessment. It provides, moreover, a sensitivity analysis to the uncertainty of the auxiliary salinity field. The residual variability ranges from 0. This study is focused on the estimation of the systematic antenna-based pattern in the measured brightness temperatures.
A baseline T-S diagram is arranged from climatology data, differentiating 7 ocean zones and mapping them into the T-S domain. Then, the accuracy of the brightness temperature computation with the number of terms of the n-power spectrum is determined. The first salinity retrievals using 2D aperture synthesis radiometry are also presented. In-situ auxiliary data was collected simultaneously with the radiometer measurements. The initiative is implemented through a number of research projects proposed and led by early-stage scientists at post-doctoral level for a period of two years which are summarized in this SpringerBrief.
Furthermore, its variation with wind speed is also analyzed. This paper presents a study which analyses the errors induced in the soil moisture retrieval due to the variability associated to soil type. The soil dielectric permittivity relates the soil water content to the brightness temperature. A preliminary attempt of deriving a purely satellite-based Temperature-Salinity T-S diagram is presented, with the overall aim of assessing to what extent is possible, and in which geographical areas, to identify and trace water masses by satellite. They cover the measurement of the dielectric permittivity of the sea water at L- band, the impact on the sea emissivity of the surface roughness waves, swell, currents, rain. Dissertation, Barcelona, Spain, October 2008.
The relative weight for each of the terms included in the cost function observational and background terms is assessed in different cost function configurations. This tradeoff between geophysical effects in cold seawater and the concomitant temporal oversampling has been addressed by analyzing the latitudinal trend of the retrieved salinity performances, in various retrieval configurations and settings, once a conservative and optimal data filtering strategy is applied. As the canopy affects the microwave emission of land, it is necessary to characterize different vegetation layers. The identified issues and objectives to consolidate and improve the processing chain are also described. Data acquired over the Ocean rather than over Land are prefered to characterize such errors because the variability of the emissivity sensed over the oceanic domain is an order of magnitude smaller than over land. Results are presented and discussed. First results will be presented at the conference.
It has been shown that using physically-consistent salinity field uncertainties of the order of less than 0. Results show that not even the proposed weight properly drives the minimization, and that the current cost function has to be modified in order to avoid the introduction of artifacts in the retrieval procedure. The new method is forward model independent and generic. The robustness of this methodology is assessed through the estimated anomaly pattern stability when computed for different geophysical conditions, periods of time, and latitudinal bands. The performances of both algorithms are compared, and simulation resu- lts are presented and discussed.
As a matter of fact, the overall processing chain will be verified downstream Level 1 to Level 4 , thus gathering important insights and feedback which will be used to improve the procedures upstream. A study of the latitudinal trend of the retrieved salinity performances along a Southwards transect has been performed, analyzing the trade-off between geophysical effects in cold seawater and the concomitant temporal oversampling under various processing configurations. Concurrently with the radiometric measurements, the gravimetric soil moisture, temperature, and roughness were measured, and the vines were fully characterized. In this paper the work related to the ocean salinity is summarized. The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission will provide sea surface salinity maps over the oceans, beginning in late 2009. The results of these tests will provide the basis for the consolidation of the existing brightness-temperature bias-mitigation techniques and for the development of new techniques.
The communication will present results on a systematic error characterization methodology allowing stable error pattern estimates. It will be shown how the methodology is also an interesting tool to diagnose specific error sources. For the most intense storms, cooling is systematically reduced by ~50% over the plume area compared to surroundings open ocean waters. Within this framework, this study represents a contribution to the assessment of one of the pending issues in the definition of the cost function: the optimal weight to be given to the radiometric measurements with respect to the weight given to the background geophysical terms. Impact of some image reconstruction options will be evaluated. Since the end of the commissioning phase in May 2010 the instrument acquisition mode is set to full polarization. Errors associated to the modelling of the roughness effect and those due to interference signals are believed to be responsible of some scattering in the retrieved data.
Soil moisture and temperature were registered at various depths, and surface roughness was measured with a laser profiler. Several factors may potentially produce systematic errors in the antenna reference frame: the unavoidable fact that all antenna are not perfectly identical, the imperfect characterization of the instrument response e. Namely, the data will be sorted according to the incidence angle, the wind speed, the across-track distance, the radiometric accuracy and the spatial resolution. The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission will provide from 2009 onwards sea surface salinity maps over the oceans. In this paper an ocean salinity error budget is described, an analysis needed to identify the magnitude of the error sources associated with the retrieval.
To perform the latter analysis, the satellite-Argo mismatches have been overlapped with geophysical parameters of precipitation rates, surface heat and freshwater fluxes and wind speed data. Coastal proximity has been found to affect the retrieva- - l of up to 150 and 300 km from the coast, at Levels 2 and 3, respectively. Remote Sens, 46 3 , pp. The minimization procedure is a great challenge and crucial step, but its success depends on the quality of the forward model. The possibility of using model solutions for validation will also be considered. We expressed Formation estimates in density σ , thermohaline θ-S and geographic co-ordinates for an increased degree of comparison between satellites and literature.