Many methodologies exist for dividing a population into those who are classified as eligible for social transfers and those who are ineligible. While understandings of 'poverty' have moved to incorporate social dimensions of wellbeing together with rights-based approaches, social protection continues to be conceptualised by many development agencies mainly in terms of public responses to livelihood shocks; the conventional economic 'safety net' function. The famine in Somalia 2011—2012 is a call for critical reflection and improvement. The suspicion must be that they have been consciously left aside both in order to engage rather than to alienate a broader audience, and in light of the weight of progressive policies that are most immediately or potentially on the food policy agenda. This article reviews lessons emerging from the series of articles in this special edition of Global Food Security, and identifies global implications for famine prevention, mitigation, and response in five key areas: the delay in response, the criteria for declaring a famine, the response, humanitarian space, and accountability. As work, debate and research on social protection progress, children's vulnerability and opportunity deserve special attention and effort. This paper proposes an alternative measure of severe poverty or destitution, defined in terms of subsistence needs, livelihood resources and dependence on transfers.
This paper reviews empirical evidence from a range of social protection programmes on the accuracy of these mechanisms, in terms of minimising four targeting errors: inclusion and exclusion, by eligibility and by poverty. Recent droughts have revived debates about the viability of pastoralist livelihoods in the Horn of Africa. The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. The first questions the methodological foundations of the data from which these positive trends are derived: we argue that the original sampling frame was too small and unrepresentative to provide a basis for extrapolating national poverty levels or trends. This article examines practical applications of three alternative targeting mechanisms: self-targeting, individual assessment, and group characteristics. Gilligan and Alemayehu Seyoum Taffesse 6. Rights-based approaches emphasize a right to social protection that is not time-bound or conditional on certain behaviours.
Numerous examples show how social, cultural and political relations shape agricultural production, patterns of investment, the uptake of technologies and the functioning of agricultural markets. Résumé Le système de protection sociale en Afrique du Sud est exceptionnel non seulement pour la couverture complète, la générosité respective et la livraison efficace de ses subventions sociales mais aussi parce que ces subventions sont étayées par engagement politique et le droit légiféré. Most evaluations rely heavily on quantitative techniques and experimental methods to allow for attribution of impacts. Much of the impetus has come from international development actors, with some notable exceptions. Conventional approaches to poverty assessment are dominated by narrow measures of current household income, expenditure and consumption. Taking these dynamics seriously is a key requirement if grand-sounding policies are to have an impact on the ground in diverse settings in Africa. Climate change models predict that those likely to be most adversely affected are the regions already most vulnerable to food insecurity, notably Africa, which stands to lose substantial agricultural land.
Impacts of South Africa's Child Support Grant Michael Samson, Carolyn Heinrich, Sheshangai Kaniki, Ferdinando Regalia, Kenneth Mac Quene, Tendie Muzondo, Ms. Secondly, the numbers of destitute people, and of people vulnerable to becoming destitute, have increased over the past ten years. Our mailing list is growing all the time, so do keep us informed of any developments in the area of social protection that you would like to have publicised. We define 'success' in political and institutional terms rather than immediate impacts on poverty and vulnerability. The first is that northern models of social provisioning were transplanted to poor countries with little adaptation to local realities; the second arises from the top-down and sectoral nature of social policy.
The first presents economic and human-rights based right arguments for social protection as an integral part of the social policy menu in Africa. Cashback will be credited as Amazon Pay balance within 10 days from purchase. But to which does food belong? Here, the metaphors of the environment and of the financial system are more telling than of tectonic shift. In this highly politicised context, the voices of pastoralists themselves are often ignored. This is followed by a part on targeting, which highlights some of the key policy trade-offs faced when deciding between alternative target groups. Ingrid van Niekerk and Martin Williams Part 4: Social Justice 8. However, since school attendance already exceeded 80 percent at baseline due to the government's focus on universal access to basic education, the programme was unable to induce additional educational access.
Efforts to reduce extreme poverty by assisting poor people to cross income or asset thresholds are receiving increasing attention in social protection programming. This impressive collection makes a major contribution to building the evidence base, drawing on rigorous analysis of social protection programmes in several African countries, as well as original research and thinking on key topical issues in the social protection discourse. Our study finds that the programme enabled poor households to overcome income constraints and, consequently, allowed them to make investments in education. However, targeting performance is strongly affected by implementation capacity and modalities. We find that i training and coaching are important complements to cash and material support in achieving positive change, ii positive effects extend to the wider community, and iii continuous, tailored, and positively engaging modes of messaging are imperative for achieving change. Thirdly, the crisis of livelihoods underlying this trend is affecting entire communities - the dominant pattern is an aggregate downward shift, rather than stratification - and the decline of wealthier households is exacerbating the vulnerability of the poorest.
The first presents economic and human-rights-based right arguments for social protection as an integral part of the social policy menu in Africa. Findings reveal that participants have significantly reduced their level of deprivation and demonstrated improvements in consumption, health, education and social participation. The rapid ascendancy of social protection up the development policy agenda in the past ten to 15 years raises questions about whether its current prominence will be sustained, or whether it will turn out to be just another development fad that declines and ultimately disappears. The third strand considers alternative sources of data on changes in wellbeing in Ethiopia: recent qualitative studies report that the poor perceive themselves as poorer and more vulnerable than poverty headcount figures suggest. This paper locates the persistence of famine in Africa in simultaneous or sequential failures of food supply, demand for food, and humanitarian responses. A trifurcated approach to social policy is proposed: the equality principle universal provision should be applied to essential social services; equity payments proportionate to contributions are appropriate for social insurance schemes, but social safety nets or social welfare grants should be allocated on the basis of need vulnerable groups or poverty.
The future of African agriculture is once again on the development agenda. Social Protection for Africa's Children Sudhanshu Handa, Stephen Devereux, and Douglas Webb 2. The E-mail message field is required. If adopted, the famine scales should contribute to more effective and proportionate responses, as well as greater accountability in future food crises. Child Vulnerability and the Community Coping Mechanisms Implications for social protection policy in Africa Erick Otieno Nyambedha 11.
Minimum wage legislation aims to reduce poverty by raising the wages of the poorest workers towards or above the poverty line. Alternatives to the liberalisation approaches of the past are explored, and the dilemmas of post-reform agrarian politics are identified. The second argument questions the conceptual underpinnings of these studies: poverty estimates based on levels of current consumption fail to allow for non-income dimensions of wellbeing, nor for confounding factors such as seasonality, annual rainfall and food aid receipts. Also in this edition of the Newsletter: new research; new publications; new resources; what's coming up and outputs from recent events. The first presents economic and human-rights based right arguments for social protection as an integral part of the social policy menu in Africa.
About the Author Sudhanshu Handa is Associate Professor of Public Policy at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Based on fieldwork in Somali Region in 2005, this article argues that 'living on the margins' - excluded by and beyond the reach of the state, yet resisting incorporation - is the source of both pastoralist wealth and pastoralist vulnerability. The third part presents rigorous quantitative evidence on the impact of social cash transfers on children from programmes in South Africa, Malawi and Ethiopia and the final part addresses a set of issues related to social justice and human rights. Our regression findings confirm that food transfers or 'cash plus food' packages are superior to cash transfers alone - they enable higher levels of income growth, livestock accumulation and self-reported food security. This contribution argues that social protection can significantly contribute to reducing inequality and social injustice, particularly when it is designed and delivered in conjunction with.