Leakage due to policies restricting forest exploitation and displacement due to growing domestic consumption and exports contributed respectively to an estimated 58% and 42% of total displacement. Regulating World Markets in a Liberal Global Economy -- 6. To explain the particularities of recent forest transitions in Asian countries, several recent national-level comparative studies have stressed the importance of private entrepreneurship in forest management facilitated by arrangements for effective forestland ownership , sufficient provisioning of timber products to cover local demands facilitated by cross-border timber trade and the setting-up of plantations , shifts in the national economy towards export-oriented manufacturing and service industries facilitated by foreign direct investments , and strong pro-forest state interventions and policies facilitated by international aid and expertise, and capacities generated from economic growth Youn et al. Socio-ecological feedbacks seem to better explain a slowing down of deforestation and stabilization of forest cover, while exogenous socio-economic factors better account for reforestation. I confess to having at times felt frustration by the relative lack of attention among like-minded colleagues to this issue. This imbalance is due, in part, to domestic policies intended to protect the environment.
Trade barriers of forest products are often advocated in the name of protecting forest resources. The factors leading to deforestation differ across regions, however, and there is no one-size-fits-all global policy recommendation for restraining the tropical deforestation process. Forest cover changes, however, varied widely among regions due to specific socio-economic and environmental factors. The Identity also logically relates the quantitative impact on forest expanse of shifting timber harvest to regions and plantations where density grows faster. The national-scale reforestation of Vietnam since 1992 is assumed to contribute to this recovery.
Deforestation in developing countries has given rise to much concern in recent years. After thematic and geometric harmonization of land cover maps from 1907, 1955, 1970, 1990, and 2006, a cluster analysis established four typologies, and a transition matrix was constructed to assess land cover dynamics. We argue that long-run changes in forest cover in a country or region cannot be separated from the overall pattern of land use changes. This paper develops an analytical framework to assess these effects. This analysis in itself is valid as it informs about possible causal relations, which are relevant and insightful. Forest cover has remained steady or increased slightly over the time period, reaffirming the conclusion that fuelwood demand may lead to local degradation but not large-scale deforestation. Compared to historical EuroAmerican forest transitions, however, significant differences exist in terms of the country's integration within globalized economic, political and ideological networks, including having access to ideas, tested experiences, technologies and sources of information that are now much advanced Kull et al.
It will be unable to take into account the full range and extent of agrarian and social changes that occur in light of the land grab and their strategic implications for poor people's livelihoods. Although the importance of international trade and foreign investment were recognized in forest transition literature Walker 2008 , and the risk of leakage is now a globally recognized phenomenon Pfaff and Walker 2010 , quantitative analyses have mainly focused on the effect of international trade and investment in the primary sector. This indicates that more food production drives deforestation, but higher efficiency of agriculture is correlated with forest gain. Results provide evidence for the abandonment of upland swidden agriculture 1993-2003, and reveal that spatial competition between expanding natural forests, fixed crop fields and tree plantations increased 2003-2013. We conclude by discussing the prospects of accelerating land use transitions in tropical forest countries.
Cite this chapter as: Griffin K. Copyright 1994 by Royal Economic Society. This paper considers some implications of the consumption, management and conservation of forests and wood at a local and global scale. This demonstrates the need to consider the overall global economic situation of a country when exploring the effects of economic globalization on forest transitions. Elgaronline requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books or journals. Nanoparticle impacts aggravate the oxidation of the Ni-P alloy coating, and the impact with an exposure time of three minutes promotes the concentration of element phosphorus in the subsurface below about 6 nm. Improvements in political institutions and governance significantly reduce deforestation.
Ironically, developed nations are often better equipped to extract resources in an environmentally prudent manner than the major suppliers. We note that previous work has used models with restrictive assumptions, and recommend a more flexible random coefficients specification which allows for a greater degree of cross-country heterogeneity. Land-use change is driven by synergetic factor combinations of resource scarcity leading to an increase in the pressure of production on resources, changing opportunities created by markets, outside policy intervention, loss of adaptive capacity, and changes in social organization and atti-tudes. Thus leakage and offsetting losses of environmental quality may be present. Climate-driven land-cover mod-ifications interact with land-use changes. But where the costs of environomental degradation are borne by others by the poor or by other countries , there are few incentives to alter damaging behavior. High-income countries were the only group to act as net importers, suggesting that rich countries practice preservation within borders but appropriate resources from poorer countries to sustain consumption.
To do so, land systems should be understood and modeled as open systems with large flows of goods, people, and capital that connect local land use with global-scale factors. Land-use change can be understood using the con-cepts of complex adaptive systems and transitions. In some countries across the globe, tropical forest cover is increasing. There has also been a recovery of growth in Latin America. The net decrease in the pressure on forests does not account for differences in their ecological quality. Recent data trends indicated limits to further forest expansion, and logging within high-quality natural forests reportedly remained a widespread problem.
Intermediate usage creates cost and demand linkages between firms and a tendency for manufacturing agglomeration. A capability approach analysis of renewable energy-based electrification projects in Cajamarca, Peru , Journal of Human Development and Capabilities , 10. These results indicate that a country or region may improve the forest resource conditions by upgrading the export structure through the development of export-oriented manufacturing and service industries during the process of global industrial restructuring. Another set focuses on various types of economic transitions, namely, from central planning to a market oriented system, from capitalism to socialism and from an inward to an outward oriented strategy. The results also indicate that strengthening agricultural and forestry sector policies are important for curbing deforestation.