ModernTendencies in Poetry 1920 , which appeared in an obscure Indian journalcalled Shamaa, not only argues that poetry is a science, but that amature poet. While Pound favored verypublic partnerships, Eliot adopted more private arrangements: a small,collaborative circle with himself at the middle. Eliot actuallystressed this feature of Conrads work elsewhere, writing a little morethan a year before he started thinking carefully about The Waste Land 78 T. When he first began writing, Eliot wasconfronted with what he saw as an increasingly heterogeneous and chaoticculture that he eventually attributed to liberalism, individualism, and abreakdown in social customs. Hulme, an important influence upon Eliotsthinking, who wrote: The future condition of man, then, will always beone of struggle and limitation. Here, the speaker has finally peeled away the veil that obscures a clear viewinto memory and the light of that past pours into his consciousness. He would also begin to reposition the role ofpoetry in society, making it a fundamental component of any successfulculture.
In fact, most of the poems inPrufrock contain narrative voices that remain unidentified, and they areattached to characters that are both revealed yet withheld through thetantalizingly ambiguous first-person pronoun. To underscore this point, Shakespeare assigns Coriolanus a series ofmetaphoric marriage partners other than his wife, at various times pairing 90 T. Part of Eliots motivation is tooverturn a historical bias that equates tradition with a lack of originalityand devalues tradition by setting it against nineteenth-century notions ofauthorship that glorify invention. Publication of a few of these items isalso by permission of the Houghton Library, Harvard University. To make matters more difficult, all ofthe collaborators are focused on the man in charge, who is himselfunusually tentative about fully embracing positions of authority, somuch so that many of the prose documents erect models of collaborationthat highlight the eliding of authority as one of their primary characteristics. The best results can only be got out of manas the result of a certain discipline which introduces order into this internalanarchy. That leadingarticle threatened numerous tenets of modernism by suggesting that pro-fessionalism draws false comparisons between artistic activities andmechanized processes; that professionalism unnecessarily emphasized thetechnique of art and therefore destroyed the enjoyment of creation; andthat professionalism results in difficult art which alienates a public unableto make judgments for itself about those pieces.
Richard Badenhausen '84 Cambridge University Press Richard Badenhausen professor and director, Honors Program; Kim T. At the very least, the summaries betray anenormous amount of insecurity about how Eliot should present himselfto friends, associates, and strangers, and they reveal a self-consciousnessabout the slipperiness of identity that would both prepare Eliot to enterinto collaborative relationships but also threaten the survival of thoserelationships over time. Always adhering to the principle that the words ofpoetry. William Henry Lewis Harper Collins The acclaimed William Henry Lewis brings us 10 often sensual and alwayseye-opening tales that will catapult him into the first rank of Americanstorytellers. But Pound and Eliotdiffered in their approach to such alliances. He must hide to reveal himself.
Herealizes that in disturbing the dust on the bowl of rose-leaves he has madethe proper choice, for he has been rewarded with epiphanic images of thefirst world. Guided by hisfirm belief that the serious artist always uses the smallest possiblenumber of words, Pound stressed concision over Eliots propensity forwandering poetically or repeating himself, a habit that surfaces fromPrufrock onwards. Eliot, Inventions of the March Hare: Poems 19091917, ed. In the Twenty-Fifth Anniversary report of HarvardsClass of 1910, Eliot informs his classmates with some exasperation that he isobliged to spend a great deal of time answering letters from Ezra Pound, butmy firm pays for the stamps. Why risk the painthat will inevitably accompany the task of accessing these memories of aroad not taken? Pound, who once referred to the problem of being an American as a virus, the bacillus of the land in my blood, remarked to William CarlosWilliams that the disease of Americanism also plagued his friend: Eliot hasit perhaps worse than I have poor devil.
Richard Badenhausen examines the crucial role that collaboration with other writers played in the development of T. This fondness forprovisional language also surfaces in Eliots overuse of a word like per-haps, which Pound cut in one place 45 and viewed elsewhere as enoughof a fault to comment on the word itself. While he employed an assortment of appellations,including T. This is shown by the analysis of the content of the book, that of the epigram and that of the remaining liminal poems, which were clearly composed in praise of Acuna's translation of this French book of moral content. Those eager to dismiss Pounds influence altogether by exaltingEliot as the sole author, as well as their rivals who argue that the poem wouldnot have existed without the assistance of Pounds sharp editorial pen, limittheir potential readings by assuming interpretations that accept tacitly thenotion of single authorship. Healso sought assistance from others, including his wife Vivien. A hundred lines at the most will make up his longest poems.
Such writers, explained Eliot, had shirked thelabor of smelting what may have been payable ore. While thetwo remained friendly, Pound disappeared as a central collaborator in Eliotslater work. It is sometimes difficult to know how much 76 T. Through the first gate,Into our first world, shall we followThe deception of the thrush? Rather, that music the echoes buried further in the shrubbery of memory is still unattainableby the speaker at this point. Sucha shift helps us more readily appreciate the emphasis Eliot placed uponaudience in the second half of his career, for the poet was comfortableacknowledging the readers ability to help shape meaning within a text. Heresponded much like Milton, by creating in poems like The Waste Landan aesthetic of difficulty that endeavored to unite readers able to master thenecessary background and training to process challenging material within aprivileged circle of learning.
Eliots anti-Georgianism, however, forced him to examine his own position within a collaborative faction. As a result of this tension, some interesting exchanges surface between the two men that expose each poets ambivalence about specific nationalliterary traditions. At least that is how Pound conceived of the enterprise in hisforceful refutation of Arthur Waughs attack on Prufrock during areview of Pounds Catholic Anthology in which Pound concludes hisnumerous ad hominem denunciations of Waugh and equally enthusiasticpraise of Eliot by claiming, I said the same sort of thing about JamesJoyces prose over two years ago. Forms like the dramatic monologue, strategieslike direct quotation and allusion, and tactics like collaboration all offered thisadvantage. Following the lead of constructions ofartistic production in his prose, the approach provided Eliot with anotherentity on which to concentrate and had the liberating effect of turning hisattention away from his own struggles with burdensome imaginativematerial toward a collaborators critical response to that material. My reading shows that collaboration informed thewriters approach to a wide range of subjects, including audience, tradition,influence, translation, modernism, and the creative process, among others,and that while collaboration became his primary compositional strategyfrom the early poetry through his final play, Eliot also struggled to arriveat a coherent, comfortable accounting of how that collaboration ultimatelytook place. The differing nature of this collaboration has also allowed me to look atBrownes overall effect upon Eliots drama, rather than chart his influenceupon a single play over time.
Eliot and the Art of Collaboration represents a lively and imortant contribution to modernist studies. As he does in Prufrock, then, Eliot invites the reader to participate in the dilemma of his speaker. Since this is clearly an individual in search of some stabilizingguidance, I would like to read this passage as an extended metaphor thatdepicts the complicated process of imaginative creation and positions theassistance Eliot sought and often found in collaboration as a solution tothe problems raised by that activity. Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York www. No doubt acutely aware of his propensity for hedging in thisway, Eliot perhaps overcorrected by adding two strong, active verbs: Herbrain allows one half-formed thought to pass 141.
It has nothing to dowith the fact that other people want what they want. After reintroducing Volumnia as the beseecher in the sentence thatfollows, F. While seeming to apologize for andattempting to explain Pounds intrepid bombast, Eliot also gently pokes funat the image of old Ez railing against the mob. Eliot envisioned the journal as a vehicle that wouldallow for the collective articulation of the modernist program, yet with adecidedly internationalist slant: the same week he posted the Pound letter,Eliot contacted both Valery Larbaud and Hermann Hesse seeking con-tributions for the review. Furthermore, complained Eliot,every time I print anything of his it nearly sinks the paper. Eliots critical prose suggests he was extremely attuned to collaboration as a creative procedure in the work of others: the word collaboration 8 T. After offering a fairly dense, philosophical discussion of time,the speaker of Burnt Norton declares: Footfalls echo in the memoryDown the passage which we did not takeTowards the door we never openedInto the rose-garden.
It turned up as theconcluding piece in Collected Poems 19091935 and only began to be seenby its author as the opening of a series during the war, when he startedcomposing additional quartets. But the most intense conflict occurred betweenEliots attempts to posit a creative persona that flourished under solitaryconditions and his repeated construction of models of artistic productionthat highlighted a dependence on collaborative activity to initiate thatoutput. This Shakespearean context in Vivien Eliotswriting has gone unnoticed until now, as far as I can determine. He demonstrates Eliot's dependence on collaboration in order to create, but also his struggle to accept the implications of the process. The lack of punctuation indicates thatthese are the stray thoughts of a mind deep in reflection. Consequently, these essays which are preoccupied with the actorscollaboration with the writer; the writers collaboration with the director;and the audiences place as a collaborator in performance tend to offer thecollaborative elements of drama as potential solutions to artistic andcultural problems in the belief that such partnerships might ultimatelyserve to unify a disjointed culture.